The Pain of Fibromyalgia

  • Physical: an injury or chronic illness.
  • Emotional: anxiety, worry, tension and depression
  • Behavioural: focusing on the pain and how to manage the pain
  • Physical: medication, massages, relaxation exercises or herbal medicines
  • Emotional: feelings such as happiness, optimism or feeling relaxed
  • Behavioural: concentration, distraction or involvement in activities that are life-giving
  • Improving physical and lifestyle functioning: improving muscle tone, self-esteem, self-efficacy, distraction and decreasing boredom like participating in a hobby that you love.
  • Decreasing the reliance on drugs and medical services, therefore improving personal control, the sick role (behaviour expected of a person who is physically ill, mentally ill, or injured), and increasing self-efficacy.
  • Increasing social support and family life which will increase optimism and distraction from unhealthy thoughts and an unhealthy lifestyle.
  • Respondent methods are to help modify the physiological system, by reducing muscle tension.
  • Relaxation methods help to decrease pain and biofeedback is used to enable the individual to exert voluntary control over their bodily functions, which will decrease anxiety and tension therefore the pain experience.
  • Attention diversion (encouraging the individual not to focus on the pain), imagery (encouraging the individual to have positive, pleasant thoughts).
  • Cognitive behavioural therapy: cognitive behavioural therapy focuses on the aspects of pain perception and uses a range of psychological strategies to enable people to unlearn unhelpful practices and learn new ways of thinking and behaviours.

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